Why and When to Use Wet Weather Tires?

Imagine you are riding a car when it’s raining. At a low speed, you don’t feel any difference from normal riding. But at higher speeds, one can feel the speed of the car getting affected. This is because of a phenomenon called ‘water planing’. Water resists the ply of the tires on the ground by forming a block on the area between the front of the tire and the ground. This affects driving performance increases the possibility or skidding. Rain tires are sometimes designed to have a smaller diameter. This helps the tire to rotate faster and displace more water overcoming centripetal force. Sometimes they are also narrower than other tires. This reduced footprint of the tires helps avoid hydroplaning.

Structure
Water displacement is the first and foremost job of a wet-weather tire. Multiple features of the wet weather tires aim at providing this. One such feature is the rain groove. How does a rain groove work? The area of the tire that comes in contact with the earth is called the contact patch. This contact should always remain for movement to happen. Because of this, the area of the tire that is in contact with the road is made to flatten and then regain the normal shape. In dry conditions, this happens normally with no obstruction.

But in conditions like when it is raining, this process gets affected. Maintaining the same amount of contact with water on the ground is difficult. When there is an excess amount of water collected in the road, hydro planing can go up to the extent of completely disconnecting the tire from the ground. Hydroplaning causes a lot of accidents every year.

A rain groove pulls water away from the area of contact of the tire with the ground. To combat water on the roadway and lower the risk of hydroplaning, tires are fitted with rain grooves. This is achieved by properly designed patterns and correctly arranged voids. The patterns are angled so that water is directed away from the center of the tire whereas the voids serve as a channel to displace the sidelined water.

Rubber
Rain tires are made from soft rubber. Softer rubber helps in having a better grip in wet conditions and they also help in building up heat inside the tire. The rubber used in wet weather tires comprises oils and chemicals. When introduced to heat, the tire tends to become sticky due to these elements and start to deteriorate. The softer the tire is, the weaker it is when exposed to heat. One of the methods drivers use to avoid tire deterioration while wet conditions are getting dried up is driving purposely on stagnated puddles of water to cool the tires.

Advantages of wet-weather tires
Improved safety- wet weather poses some of the most dangerous driving conditions; from reduced visibility to slippery roads during winter and autumn months. These tires provide improved braking performance and traction on these wet roads for safe riding.
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Technical Features and Advantages of In-line Engines or Straight Engines

Structure
In-line engines are a type of internal-combustion engines, where the cylinders are arranged in a single row. The crankshaft is placed perpendicular to the pistons and all the cylinder heads move in the same direction, rotating the crankshaft. They come in four, six and eight cylinder configurations and are used in automobiles and air crafts.

Advantages
a) In-line engines are very easy to build because the cylinders and the crankshaft can be fixed in the same casting. Straight engines have smaller physical dimensions compared to other engines and thus, installing them becomes easier. They also have a support bearing between each piston.

Usage
a) It is the most common 4-cylinder configuration seen in automobiles, whereas engines like straight-five have evolved into v5 engines. Some companies that have used straight engines in the cars are, Acura, Audi, Mercedes-Benz, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo BMW, Chevrolet, etc.

a) In-line-4
An inline-4 engine has 4 cylinders. An important characteristic of in-line four engines is the use of balancing shafts. During rotation, however, improperly arranged cylinders create an imbalance, which leads to undesirable vibration. This vibration increases with RPM. A balance shaft reduces this by nullifying the imbalance.

b) Straight-five
A straight-five engine has five cylinders, with two heads moving in one and the other three moving in the opposite direction. The straight-5 engine is a mix of both a straight 4 and straight six. It is longer in size and costs more to manufacture than the straight-4, but is comparatively much smoother.

c) Straight-six
Having six cylinders, the straight-six has been used by BMW, Chrysler, Chevrolet, etc. In straight four and straight six engines, due to the even number of cylinders, there has to be secondary vibration. While it is corrected in straight-4 by using a balancing shaft, straight does not use any. The secondary vibration is controlled by using crankshaft dampers.

d) Straight-eight
The straight-eight engine has eight cylinders in a straight line. It naturally has inherent primary and secondary balance, thus the crankshaft has no primary or secondary forces acting upon it. However, there is torsional vibration, and a harmonic damper is needed to cancel it. The straight six also has inbuilt balancing features, but the straight-eight has more strokes per revolution and the result is smoother functioning.

Balance shafts: In inline-4 engines, due to the asymmetry of the design, they have an inherent second order vibration. This cannot be overcome, no matter how well balanced the components are. To overcome this, the balancing shaft is used, which rotates in the opposite direction to that of the engine. This is commonly used in inline-4 engines and used in inline-6.
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Advantages of Having Full Coverage Auto Insurance

Full coverage auto insurance is one you need to have in order to protect yourself in the event of major accidents. Many people opt for minimum liability so that they could save money on their policy. But in long run, this will end up with paying more if you only carry the amount of coverage.
In this article, we will discuss about the benefits of having full coverage auto insurance.

No worries: When having full coverage car insurance, you need not be worried about the damages to your car in the event of an accident or even theft. Often your car can be easily damaged in the parking lots of the shopping malls, etc. These small damages can be covered with this type of insurance policy.

Peace of mind: Having a full coverage of car insurance will allow you to relax as you know that an accident will not put a financial burden on you. Nothing is more important than peace of mind.

Fully paid windshield replacement: If your car windshield is damaged, instead of repair, they are fully replaced at no extra cost.

Stereo equipment coverage: All stereo equipment are covered in case of accidents up to certain amount you have followed guidelines of insurance for installing your stereo equipment.

Free car rental service: In case your car is taking more than 24 hours for repairs after an accident, they will rent you a car for your use at no cost.

Receive full liability: Regardless of the matter, whether it is your fault or not, you will be paid for all. This also includes natural disasters like hurricane, tree falling on the tree, thunder storm damages, etc.

Covers fire and water damage: Full coverage auto insurance also covers the damage caused by fire and water. This damage cannot be prevented and just can happen. So, you will not get financially ruined by such kind of damage as it is covered by your insurance policy.

These are all the benefits that you will avail when you choose a full coverage auto insurance for your car. You will literally save a big amount of money. Full coverage auto insurance is ideal for a driver who drives more than 1,000 miles a day.
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Oral Health Considerations During Pregnancy

Pregnancy is one of the unique incidents in a woman’s life that accompanies physiological and hormonal changes. This can include changes in respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal as well as changes in oral cavity, which increases the susceptibility to oral infections. This is why it is important to take care of your health including oral health.
This article discusses some tips that you need to follow during pregnancy.

1) Follow good oral hygiene practice to prevent oral problems
Good oral hygiene such as brushing twice a day or after every meal and flossing at least once a day can help you prevent many dental problems.

Brushing removes plaque (white sticky film) from the teeth and flossing removes tiny leftover food particles from between the teeth. Irregular brushing and flossing will let bacteria in the plaque react with left over food particles and form acid. This acid attacks the teeth. Since changes in oral health are common in pregnancy, you must take extra care.

2) Visiting the dentist regularly
Never skip your dental visits simply because you are pregnant. Regular visits to the dentists is the part of oral hygiene routine. Visiting the dentist regularly help in diagnosing dental problems if any and treating it in its early stage before it requires a complex procedure. Not only you will be diagnosed, but also you will be given guidelines for how to take care of your teeth and gums.

3) Eat tooth friendly diet
Including a plenty of food that is rich in proteins, calcium and vitamins will support your baby’s health and protect your teeth. See to it that you avoid too much of sugary and starchy food, which hastens tooth decay and gum problems.

4) Inform your dentist that you are pregnant
Dental procedures are avoided during first trimester and the second part of third trimester because these are the phases when your baby’s development is critical. This is why it is important for you to inform the dentist about your pregnancy as soon as you know about it. If required, treatment can be done in the second trimester. Meanwhile, pain can be subsided by taking some painkillers that are safe during pregnancy.

5) Tell your dentist about the medications you are taking
When you are at dentist’s office, tell him about the medications you are taking including the vitamins like folic acid. This is important because your dentist needs to alter the treatment plan based on this information.

Pregnancy does need not mean denying good oral hygiene, instead you should take extra care in order to make sure that both you and your unborn enjoy optimal health.
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How does a Hybrid Car Give You Better Mileage?

The hybrid cars are the most well known for the mileage. Mileage is one of the biggest reasons that attracts people to hybrid cars. The hybrid technology is one of the reasons for better mileage but there are other reasons as well. Hybrid cars features like smaller gas tank, small and efficient engine, better aerodynamics, sturdier tires with increased pressure and lightweight materials help hybrids yield good mileage. It results in money savings on gasoline.

  • Light weight: To increase the mileage of the car, weight reduction is one of the easy ways to do it. If the car is heavier, it needs more fuel to get the power. The vehicle with low weight consumes less energy when you drive up the hill or each time you accelerate. To reduce the weight of the car, automakers are using lightweight metals such as magnesium and aluminum. Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV) burn the fuel heavily as these have more weight. The hybrid SUVs will get a better mileage than the gasoline SUVs do. But when compared to the lightweight passenger cars, they still give lower mileage.
  • Tires: In most cars, the tires are optimized to provide good traction in different weather, minimize noise and a smooth ride. Very few are optimized for the efficiency. Tires surprisingly cause the drag while driving.

Tires on hybrid cars are made using stiffer materials and they are inflated to a higher pressure. The tire pressure is normally higher than the normal passenger cars. It causes a half drag on regular car tires.

  • Aerodynamics: On the freeway driving, mostly car engine’s work is pushing your car through the air. This force is called as aerodynamic drag. This drag can reduce in many ways. One of them is reduction of front area of the car. Good aerodynamic features reduce the drag. When drag is reduced, energy utilization will reduce and it will result as fuel economy.
  • Energy recovery: When you step on the brake pedal on your hybrid car, the energy will be removed from the car. The faster the car goes, the more the kinetic energy it has. Car brakes turn kinetic energy into heat. The advantage with the hybrid cars is they can convert part of this energy into electric power and store in the battery. This works through the regenerative braking system. In this process, the electric motor works as a generator. It also sends the produced energy to the battery and take when required.

Some tricks used to get mileage in today’s hybrid cars can also be used in any other type of car and a few of them are possible only in hybrids. While you drive a hybrid car you will use gasoline. But it is not as much as you use in traditional gasoline car.
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How to Make Wedding Cake Yourself at Home?

To make your wedding cake yourself, first you need to select how much inch layer you need- 6 inches, 8, 10 or 12, better it we take the big one 12 but remember, for this you need to use hand held mixture to beat the egg whites. Therefore, you should have an extra-large standing mixer.

For 12 inch layer you need two cups of cake flour, two teaspoons orange extract, one cup of butter which is melted, four teaspoons grated orange peel, half teaspoon cream of tartar, two cups of superfine or granulated sugar, twelve large eggs.

For making a cake you need round cake pans of different sizes for making different size layers, which should be height of two inches on sides, cardboard cake rounds of different sizes, this will be sold in cake decoration supply stores. Plastic drinking straws or 1/4 inch of wooden dowels, a narrow flat-bladed offset or icing spatula, a pastry bag and a plain 1/4 inch tip for piping cream at base of each layer, decorative tips for piping and any embellishments on the finished cake.

First butter the bottom of the appropriate fan, then line the bottom with the cooking parchments, or a waxed paper, butter paper and dust with flour, to make each layer of the cake.

Then in a bowl, stir egg yolks, melted butter, orange peel and orange extract together. In a large bowl, with an electric mixture at high speed, beat the cream of tartar and the egg whites until the mixture holds the very soft peak. Add sugar and beat it again to dissolve the sugar completely and the white should hold stiff and shiny peaks. Then add whites to yolk mixture and sift flour over the whites, then using the flexible spatula, gently fold in deflating the batter as little as possible.

It is the time to scrape better into the preparation pan and then spread the level. Then bake it in 350 degree Fahrenheit oven until the top springs back when lightly pressed in the center. Here we took 12 inches then we have to keep it for 50 minutes. Then set the cake layer on the rack to cool completely, after that runs a knife on the edges of the cake to release. Invert the layer onto the matching sized cardboard round which should be corrugated. Peel off the paper.

Repeat the procedure for other layers by changing the pans and quantity of ingredients as per the size. For example, half the quantity of the ingredients for eight inch layer. Make the cream as you like but here we have chosen orange flavor so make the orange cream, and apply on the layers, then arrange one by one according to the sizes after applying the cream. After that if you want to decorate the cake then decorate as per your choice. You can also decorate it with the original fresh flowers that give pleasant look.

These the procedure to make the wedding cake, hope you will make one on your wedding to surprise your partner.
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Reasons to Remove Wisdom Tooth

The third molars are also known as wisdom tooth and are the last adult teeth to erupt. Some people are not affected by wisdom tooth eruption while some develop painful conditions that require removing (extracting) of tooth. In this article, we will discuss the reasons to remove wisdom tooth.

Reasons to remove wisdom tooth:

  • If the wisdom tooth is erupting in a wrong, tilted or twisted position.
  • If wisdom tooth does not have enough space or room to emerge and are trapped below the gum line.
  • If the wisdom tooth is pushing the front tooth (second molars) and causing pain.
  • The erupted wisdom tooth that has already erupted lacks good oral hygiene as it is difficult to reach the last tooth/teeth resulting in tooth decay.
  • The chance of complications necessitating removal of wisdom teeth increases with age.
  • In very rare condition, the impacted wisdom tooth develops cysts. Removal of such cysts require complicated and extensive procedures.
  • Wisdom tooth sometimes may contribute to crowding of front/nearby teeth.
  • Even if the wisdom tooth appears to be problem free, it remains a breeding ground for the oral infection and inflammation due to lack of proper cleaning. According to research, such infection can contribute to the development of various disease including cardiovascular and stroke.

It is clear that wisdom tooth has erupted even without causing pain but can later cause a problem due to improper oral hygiene. Wisdom tooth removal at an early age is, therefore, associated with fast and easy recovery.
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Reasons for Car Overheating

Overheating leads the engine to major defects in it, which results in expensive repair bills. It will leave you on the road side. Knowing the causes of overheating will be helpful to troubleshoot the engine by your own. Even you are not able to repair, you will know the cause of overheating. The following are the common reasons for overheating.

  • Low coolant level: Most common reason for overheating of the car engine is low coolant level. To remove and circulate the heat produced by the engine, its cooling system depends on coolant. If the coolant is not enough to do the job, your engine will overheat. In the hot weather the coolant also get heat. The coolant is pushed into the reservoir, and the coolant is hot in this process, steam is produced. Over a long time due to the evaporation of the coolant, its level will decrease. You can identify this problem just by checking the coolant level.
  • Bad thermostat: At highway speeds the engine needs more coolant than at low speeds. Because at low speeds car the engine does not produce the heat as much as highway speed. Your engine is overheating at highway speeds means that your thermostat failed. In the cooling system thermostat works as a plug. To keep cool it circulate antifreeze through the radiator. First check the leaks and the water pump. If both are in good condition, the problem might be in the thermostat.
  • Problems in cooling fan: If your car engine has an electric cooling fan and it is not working properly, it can cause overheat. When the car is going slow, the fan draws cooler air through radiator and sent through front.
    • To test the fan, leave your engine idle for long enough to get heat. If it is heating in the traffic check the temperature gauge. When it is starting indications for danger zone, check the fan under the hood. If it is not working, there are two reasons, those are either problem with the fan or with the switch.
    • Sometimes the fan meter my burn and this cause failure of the fan. To find out this, disconnect the wiring harness of your radiator fan switch and insert the jumper wire into both contacts. The fan should come on. Some cars will activate the fan when you turn on AC. Therefore, you can test in this way also.
    • The bad radiator does not affected by the fan and this results in engine overheat. To test this, disconnect the wiring harness and run jumper wire across harness contacts. If the radiator fan comes on the problem is with switch. You need to replace it.

Leaks are one of the major problem for the engine overheating. There are many reasons to cause a leak for engine coolant systems. But these should get repaired immediately. Otherwise it will lead to major engine problems.
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Car Battery Maintenance Tips

Car battery maintenance is important, as this part plays a major role in smooth functioning of the vehicle. For maintaining car batteries, there are a number of things you can do to prolong its performance. You need not have to do much about caring for the battery and just need to follow certain tips so that your car won’t stop and make you stand in the middle of the road.

In this article, we will discuss tips to improve the performance of your batteries.

  • Keep battery clean: Clean the batteries terminals so as to ensure the terminals as well as the connectors are dust free and there is nothing to interrupt the supply of the power. Moreover, batteries that are dirty can lead to corrosion and discharge.
  • Get your engine serviced regularly: Engine that is in poor condition may overload the battery and reduces its life.
  • Perform regular inspection and tests: It is easier to detect problems in the batteries when you regularly maintain. Perform the basic car battery check up routine once in a month for ensuring optimum performance.
  • First step in this battery check up routine is to make sure that the battery is clean and dry. Dirt and grime can interrupt with the battery performance. Clean/wipe off the dirt with the clean cloth that is static free.
  • Inspect the clamps, screws, cables and terminals for any damages, loose connections, cuts, scratches and breakage. Also, check for corrosion and see whether the connections are tight.
  • Then check the battery case for any cracks or any other damage. If any cracks in the case, there is the possibility that the car battery was overheated.
  • Inspect the water levels to ensure that they cover the top of the battery plates. If needed, fill it with distilled or demineralised water. (Do not overfill so as to avoid water spillage)
  • Check battery with a voltmeter (battery analyser or hydrometer) regularly. If needed, charge the battery.
  • Keep check on when the service is needed: Keep checking when the batteries require servicing. This is very important step. Poor maintenance can effect the efficiency of the the battery performance.
  • Remember that excess of cold is not good for the batteries: Opting for an engine or battery heater is the best way. This helps in smooth functioning of the battery.
  • Follow manufacturer’s maintenance guidelines: Car’s battery manufacturers have recommended maintenance and care procedures for their products. Follow manufacturer’s guidelines for ensuring the batteries’ integrity and function.

Many car care service centers are available that will check your car regularly. It also help your car to get inspected by a trusted and experienced mechanic.
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When Should You Need to Rotate Your Tires?

Tires are an important part of your vehicle. Maintenance of the tires is one of the easiest tasks. Rotation is one of the important tasks in the tier maintenance. If the tier maintenance has been done properly, it will give the grip at sudden stop or turn, ensures the handling of the car to keep it steady, improves the gas mileage and the tires life will extend. Tire rotation means not only the tires rotation around the axles when the car is moving, tires’ move to different locations around evenly.

Tier wearing causes
There are so many reasons for the vehicle’s tires wear unevenly. If the vehicle is front wheel drive, its weight depression can be a factor for the unevenness. Not only the car or vehicle tires on these have to endure the accidental bruises from parking, braking and steering, but also carry all the weight of both front axle and engine.

Uneven alignment and incorrect tire pressure can cause the tire-wear. Generally, the front tires are wear twice faster than the rear tires. This is because of the weight distribution. The engine of the car is located at front, every time you apply the brakes it will put a lot of pressure on the front tires.

When do you need to rotate?
If the tread is uneven, your vehicle tires will give you a little warning. Consider that there should be no noise produce from the car tire. On smooth roads, listen for humming sound if anything coming from tires. If you hear any noise, it is the indication to you for tire rotation. It is not good to wait until the uneven wear is visible in the tires. Once there occurs any abnormal wear in the tire, rotating can certainly give some help, but it is very difficult to correct it completely.

Tire rotation period is different from manufacturer to manufacturer and among the auto experts. Most manufacturers recommend to rotate the tires for every 6,000 to 8,000 miles. Some experts even say that there is a need for every seven to eight months months. Probably at every other oil change, it might be convenient to perform. If you are driving on a hard roads or your vehicle is four wheel drive, you may want to rotate earlier. Its better to you to rotate your tires at 5,000 miles.

As we discussed, the front wheel drive cars amplifies the transmission, weight of the engine, and brake forces will wear quickly. In this case, rotating the tires between rear and front a couple of times will save your money for a little more time and you can use your tires more economically.
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