Posts Tagged History

Know About The Development Of Universal Product Code (UPC)

The universal product code (UPC) is a barcode symbology which is used to decode the information about the products. Wallace Flint was the first person to invent automated check out system, in the year 1932. Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodland printed barcodes using ink and patented this technology. In the 196os multicolor barcodes were used to track rail cars. Six industry associations, consisting of members from product manufacturing units and supermarkets, created an industry wide committee. They worked for two years and developed the Universal Product Code (U.P.C) bar code symbol on April 1, 1973. But it was in June 1974, the U.P.C was first commercially used on a package of Wrigley’s gum.

According to an analysis, $17 billion is saved by the grocery industry annually in the year 1999. This system is useful for customers as the system improved the efficiency and the productivity which reduced the costs or increased the customer service. It also benefited the manufacturer and the retailer but it is the retailer who made most out of it because in addition to the savings, retailers now had access to detailed product movement data.

U.P.C. is being used by nearly 10,000 companies, almost in all the grocery industry of US. Today, there are over one million companies in more than 100 countries in over twenty different industry sectors, enjoying the benefits of scanning. U.P.C. symbols are used in industries such as retailing, construction, utilities, cosmetics, Pharmaceutical, publishing, Shipping, Grocery, Manufacturing Industry, postal, aerospace, automobile, software industry, etc. Today, there are two dimensional bar codes such as PDF 417 and Maxi Code. RSS and Composite symbologies are useful in barcode identification of very small items such as individual pills or a single strawberry.

Invention of U.P.C had revolutionized the barcode technology. It has made the usage of barcode very user friendly.

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Evolution of the Barcode Scanners

A barcode scanner is an electronic machine used to read the printed barcodes. A group of Harvard students developed a system based on cards with punch holes in them. The modern day barcode technology is a result of research made by Bernard Silver and Norman Woodland in 1948 for which they received a patent.

The first bar code had only four lines with black lines on a white background. Later, a system of concentric circles was introduced, but it is failed and the standard became the lines. The bar code patent was sold to RCA in 1952. National Cash Register (NCR) made use of the UPC scanners first in a Kroger grocery store in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1967. The codes were not on the packages themselves, but were printed on stickers that the store employees put on each product. The product that is scanned first is Wrigley’s Gum. In North America the two popular systems are UPC (Universal Product Code) system established in 1973 and ISBN. ISBN codes are used for books and textbooks, and they also contain figures that distinguish the product. UPC codes are employed for most other products sold in the United States and Canada.

In the modern world there are different types of technologies used in the scanners to read the barcodes like Pen type readers, Laser scanners, CCD readers, Camera based readers, Omni directional barcode scanners, Cell phone cameras etc. At present barcodes are available in two types one is linear and the other is 2 Dimensional.

A barcode system is incomplete without barcode scanners. Due to the awareness of benefits of barcode technology, the usage of barcode scanners has increased to a large extent, thereby increasing its demand in the market.

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The Nobel Peace Prize

Nobel peace prize is a most honorable prize in the world. The Nobel Peace Prize is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes donates by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. According to Nobel’s will, the Peace Prize should be awarded “to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.”

The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded every year in Oslo, the capital of Norway because Alfred Nobel’s will state that the Nobel Peace Prize should be awarded in that city. The actual prize always is presented on the 10th of December, the anniversary of the death of Nobel. The Norwegian king is in presence. “In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway. Under the eyes of a watching world, the Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount.” The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is held at the Oslo City Hall, followed the next day by the Nobel Peace Prize Concert, which is broadcast to more than 450 million households in over 150 countries around the world. The concert has received worldwide fame and the participation of top celebrity hosts and performers. The selection of Nobel Peace Prize winners sometimes causes controversy, as the list of winners includes people who formerly used violent methods of problem-solving, but then later made exceptional concessions to non-violence in the attempt to achieve peace. This is the only Nobel Prize not given out in Stockholm, Sweden.

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The Marvelous Brains of Ancient Scientists

It is not such a great accomplishment when you can discover something these days with the help of extraordinary technology, compared to the ancient times where people did marvelous wonders and discoveries.

First of all we must talk about those great scientists who said that earth is round even before Columbus proved it with his voyage. We must thank those great scientists who provided us zero and 1, through which all our computers work on.

Scientists those days possessed marvelous brains to have discovered and invented many those things which we use without any modifications even today.

How many of you can think of a strategy that can explain law on floating bodies while bathing? We do bathe everyday and most of use bath tubs but I am sure about 90% those people don’t even understand this law.

There are many scientists of ancient world like AryaBhatta, Archimedes, Ptolemy, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, and many more who have contributed much to the world.

Suggested Reading:
List Global icons switch off Their Electricity for Earth Hour
All about Nanotechnology
Symptoms Of a Infected Computer
Mechatronics at a Glimpse
Environmental Planning

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Bronze Age Europe History

The Bronze Age in Europe succeeds the Neolithic in the late 3rd millennium BC (late Beaker culture), and spans the entire 2nd millennium BC (Unetice culture, Urn field culture, Tumulus culture, Terramare culture, Lusatian culture) in Northern Europe lasting until ca. 600 BC. In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is measured to have been the period from around 2100 to 700 BC. Migration brought new people to the islands from the different continent. Recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicate that at least some of the immigrants came from the area of modern Switzerland. The Beaker people displayed dissimilar behaviors from the earlier Neolithic people and cultural change was important. Integration is thought to have been peaceful as many of the early henge sites were apparently adopted by the newcomers. The rich Wessex  culture developed in southern Britain  at this time. Additionally, the climate was deteriorating, where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, forcing the population away from easily-defended sites in the hills and into the lush valleys. Large livestock ranches developed in the lowlands which appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances.

The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to appear in the second half of the ‘Middle Bronze Age’ (c. 1400-1100 BC) to develop these conditions. Cornwall was a main source of tin for much of Western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales.Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent. Also, the burial of dead became more individual. For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow was used to house the dead, the ‘Early Bronze Age’ saw people buried in individual barrows it also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as Tumuli, or sometimes in cists covered with cairns. The greatest quantities of bronze objects found in England were discovered in East Cambridge  shire, where the most important finds were done in Isleham.

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An Outdated Air Traffic Network Used By America

A World War II-era air traffic network that often forces planes to take longer, zigzagging routes is costing U.S. airlines billions of dollars in wasted fuel while an upgrade to a satellite-based system has languished in the planning stages for more than a decade.

The $35 billion plan would replace the current radar system with the kind of GPS technology that has become commonplace in cars and cell phones. Supporters say it would triple air traffic capacity, reduce delays by at least half, improve safety and curb greenhouse gas emissions.

An Associated Press analysis of federal and industry data found that if the new system were already in place, airlines could have saved more than $5 billion in fuel this year alone.

But funding delays and the complexities of the switchover have kept the project grounded. The government does not expect to have it up and running until the early 2020s, and without a major commitment, supporters warn that even that goal might be not be attainable.

U.S. airlines have struggled in recent years, in part because of rising fuel prices. Ten airlines have shut down and others are facing bankruptcy. Their financial troubles mean less-frequent flights and fewer amenities for air travelers, who must pay more for tickets, luggage, and drinks — even pillows.

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A Glimpse at the American Folk Music

In the US people are listening different kind of music. Now I share the information on American folk music. The American folk music is also known as Americana and it is a broad category of music including Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Cajun and Native American music. The music is considered “American” because it is either native to the United States or there varied enough from its origins that it struck musicologists as something distinctly new; it is considered “roots music” because it served as the basis of music later developed in the United States, including rock and roll, rhythm and blues, and jazz.

Now the roots musicians are not agree to consider themselves to be folk musicians. Because the roots music seems to be cover a slightly broader range, including blues and country. The roots musical forms reached the height in the first two to three decades of the 20th century. The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl were extremely important in disseminating these musical styles to the rest of the country, as Delta blues masters, itinerant honky tonk singers and Latino and Cajun musicians spread to cities like Chicago, Los Angeles and New York. At the same time the recording industry growing up so profits from music placed pressure on artists, songwriters and label executives to replicate previous hit songs. The roots approach to music emphasizes the variety of American musical traditions, the genealogy of creative lineages and communities, and the pioneering contributions of musicians working in these traditions today. In recent years roots music has been the focus of popular media programs such as Garrison Keillor’s public radio program A Prairie Home Companion and the feature film by the same name.

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The Famous Einstein’s Formula

Many of us know about Einstein. He is such a famous scientist having proposed so many theories and so many patents. His energy mass relation formula is as famous as him. These days it is a fashion to have T-shirts with Einstein’s equation, E=mc2, carved on it. There is a pop album released recently on the name of this equation, and gave a record to Carey in her career.

It was in 1907 that Einstein proposed this equation in a paper “Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content?” If you are not a science geek, you won’t come to the conclusion on the answer of this question.

Such great Einstein equation may not be as easier to understand as remembering it. E is called energy. M is the mass in the equation, and finally c is the light of speed. Here velocity of light is considered because we have not yet identified any thing faster than the light.

Suggested Reading:
List Global icons switch off Their Electricity for Earth Hour
All about Nanotechnology
The Marvelous Brains of Ancient Scientists
Symptoms Of a Infected Computer
Mechatronics at a Glimpse
Environmental Planning

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Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet is an early tragedy by William Shakespeare about two teenage “star-cross’d lovers” whose “untimely deaths” ultimately unite their feuding households. The play has been extremely appreciated by literary critics for its language and dramatic effect. It was among Shakespeare’s most accepted plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet, is one of his most regularly performed plays. Romeo and Juliet belong to a tradition of disastrous romances stretching back to antique Greece. Its plot is based on an Italian tale, translated into verse as Romeos and Juliet by Arthur Brooke in 1562, and retold in prose in Palace of happiness by William Painter in 1582. Brooke and Painter were Shakespeare’s chief sources of motivation for Romeo and Juliet. He borrowed heavily from both, but developed minor characters, mainly Mercutio and Paris, in order to enlarge the plot. Believed written between 1591–1595, the play was first published in a quarto version in 1597.

Actually Shakespeare’s use of dramatic structure, particularly his expansion of minor characters, and the use of subplots to adorn the story, has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more proficient at the sonnet form over time. Characters frequently compare love and death and allude to the role of fate. Since its publication, Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times in stage, film, musical and operatic forms. During the Restoration, it was revived and heavily revised by William Davenant. Garrick’s 18th century version, which continued to be performed into the Victorian era, also altered several scenes, removing material then measured indecent. Performances in the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushman’s, restored the original text, and focused on greater realism. Gielgud’s 1935 version kept very close to Shakespeare’s text, and used Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama.

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Nobel Prize Controversy

The Nobel Peace Prize is a most honorable prize in the world but it has sparked controversy throughout its history. The Norwegian Parliament appoints the Peace Prize Committee, but peace lover’s critics argue that the same Parliament has pursued partisan military aims by ratifying membership in NATO in 1949, by hosting NATO troops, and by leasing ports and territorial waters to US ballistic missile submarines in 1983. However, the Parliament has no say in the award issue. A member of the Committee cannot at the same time be a member of the Parliament, and the Committee includes former members from all major parties, including those parties that oppose NATO membership.

These are the some widely discussed controversy of the peace-prize is the notable omissions, namely the failure to award individuals with widely recognized contributions to peace. The list includes Mahatma Gandhi, Corazon Aquino, Pope John XXIII, Pope John Paul II, Steve Biko, Raphael Lemkin, Herbert Hoover, Cesar Chavez, Jose Figueres Ferrer, and Oscar Romero. In particular, the omission of the Indian leader Gandhi has been widely discussed, including public statements by the various members of Nobel Committee. It has been acknowledged by the committee that Gandhi was nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, a few days before he was murdered in January 1948. The omission has been publicly regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee. In 1948, the year of Gandhi’s death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the ground that “there was no suitable living candidate” that year. Later, when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was “in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.” In most cases, the omissions resulted in part from the provision in Alfred Nobel’s will that only living people could receive the prize.

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