Posts Tagged Drug abuse

Impact of Marijuana Abuse on Driving

Marijuana is a one type of drug it has many negative effects on health. Essential motor skills like alertness, concentration, coordination and reaction time are effected by marijuana. These skills are required for safe driving. Judging distances and react to signals can be made difficult by marijuana use. If any body smokes marijuana, these effects can last up to 24 hours.

A role can be played by marijuana in motor vehicle crashes. Because of these drugs many accidents occurred; and according to NIDA study, in many accidents approximately 4 to 14 percent of drivers who were injured and died during driving were tested positive for THC. Alcohol is also one reason for many accidents. The hazards of driving can be more severe when you use marijuana with alcohol. Even a moderate dose of the marijuana will effect the driving negatively, according the study of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

According to study which was conducted in Memphis, Tennessee, it was found by researchers that 33 percent of drivers were tested positive for marijuana and 12 percent were tested positive for both marijuana and cocaine out of 150 reckless drivers who were arrested and tested for drugs.

Marijuana abuse can also result in short term memory. The abused might feel difficult to do even small things. So, driving under marijuana influence has high chances of accidents.

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Few Facts About Depressants

Depressants are classified mainly into two types. They are: Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines

Barbiturates: They have been popularly used in the first half of the 20th century. Symptoms after using these barbiturates include slurred speech, loss of motor coordination. They are naturally used as sleep aids. Depending upon the dosage, for length of the time the physical, psychological dependence and tolerance of these drugs occur.

Benzodiazepines: They have been produced in the year around 1960’s. They produce less respiratory depression when compared to barbiturates. Its effects include head ache, irritability, confusion, depression and even memory loss. With higher doses it causes sedation, dizziness, confusion. Generally they are used for treating anxiety, relieving pain, lack of sleep.

Even there are sleeping aids which cause sleepiness. They are prescribed by the doctor if the patient is suffering from lack of sleep. According to NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) doctor prescription medicines such as central nervous system depressants are being used for reducing anxiety and treating insomnia.

Depressive disorders affect approximately 18.8 million American adults or about 9.5% of the U.S population age 18 and older in age according to “The numbers count: mental illness in America”. So, in order to free themselves from depression many people are using this type of depressants without any prescription or without any suggestion from the doctor.

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Infectious Diseases and Drug Abuse

Drug abuse causes health risks which are sometimes as dangerous as the physiological effects of the drugs themselves. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at high danger for direct vulnerability to various blood-borne bacterial and viral infections.

HIV/AIDS: Injection drug use is the main reason for the cause of AIDS in more than one-third of all adult and adolescent cases which were reported in the U.S. since the starting of the AIDS epidemic, as per the study of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta.

Noninjection drug use can also cause HIV transmission. Noninjecting drug users who exchange sex for drugs or who engage in unprotected sex at the time of influence of drugs boosts their risk of infection.

Hepatitis: Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) are viral diseases which can damage liver cells and can result in cirrhosis and liver cancer. Drug abusers get infected to HBV through sexual intercourse with an infected person or when a person is exposed to an infected person’s blood. This happens when IDUs share needles. Blood transfusion and needle sharing are the main causes of infection of HCV.

Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted from person to person through airborne bacteria. Drug users are from two to six times more vulnerable to TB infection than nonusers. IDUs are more expected to develop the disease in various organs and sites, instead of only in the lungs.

Other Infectious Diseases: Drug users are more vulnerable not only to HIV/AIDS but also to ther sexually transmitted diseases like syphilis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and genital herpes. Among IDUs, the most common cause for medical treatment is skin infection caused at the place of injecting drugs. Problems associated with these infections can range from skin ulcers and localized sweelings to stroke, botulism, tetanus, damage of lung tissue, and infection of the heart valves.

Bacterial and viral infections: These are caused due to injection drug use that can lead to systemic infections and destroy any body system.

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Prescription Drug Addiction At Schools

Schools are another place apart from home where teens can access prescription drugs, since some students should take prescribed medications during the school day. Administrators and nurses of school should make sure that only those students with prescriptions should bring medications to campus.  In order to make clear about prescription drug abuse among students, school leaders and health educators should explain about prescription drug abuse health risk surveys to students. Health educators should teach lessons to assist students in understanding the dangers of prescription drug abuse and improve the students’ skills to prevent illegal use of prescription drugs. Guest speakers can be welcomed to school in order to address students.

Most states have policies concerning student self-medication in schools. In many schools, students who take prescription medications and their parents should sign a self-medication agreement which revises the policies related to use of prescription medicine on campus and the effects of sharing medications with other students.

School nurses and school staff should lookout for the signs in student who might be abusing prescription drugs. The signs are loss of enthusiasm, irritability to criticism, unexcused absence, withdrawal from usual activities, sudden decline in academic performance, poor interest in hygiene or personal appearance, sudden change in friends group, compressed pupils, nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression (signs of pain reliever abuse), anxiety, delusions, pink skin, and heart pain with chest shaking (signs of stimulant abuse), slurred speech, dizziness, and respiratory depression (signs of depressant abuse).

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Forbes’ List of Illegal Drug Capitals of America

Espanola is a small city with a population not more than 10,000. But the rate of drug related deaths here is at a record level of 42.5 drug-related deaths per 100,000 people. The same rate when considered national wise accounts to an average of 7.3.

There are several such places in America, which can be called as drug capitals. The business of illegal drugs is runs very fine here in spite of all the concerns taken up by police and the government.

The drug abuse remains steady over past few years with 8 percent of the total population said to use drugs. The number didn’t decreases in spite of the major steps taken by the government against illegal drugs.

Forbes released a list of illegal drug capitals…
• Espanola with a population of around 10,000 but with a record of 42.5 drug-related deaths per 100,000

• Missoula of Montana with highest rate of illicit drug use. Here an average of 13.8% of households polled using illicit drugs during 2004, 2005 and 2006

• Our capital Washington DC, where one-third of adult arrestees tested positive for cocaine, as of September 2008

• Baltimore of Maryland, where 184 heroin-related overdoses were reported in 2006

• New Orleans of Los Angeles. Here there were a reported turf wars between drug dealers

• San Francisco of California, where highest rate of illicit drug-related emergency room visits were reported in 2006

• Atlanta of Georgia which has now become the East Coast distribution hub of the violent Mexican drug dealers
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Athletes and Performance Enhancing Drugs

Before every game athlete drug testing is carried on every athlete who wants to participate or who selected for participating in the games. Athletes are tested whether they use any performance-enhancing drugs for increasing their efficiency. Sometimes, competitors have many questions if any participant wins the game.

These tests are practiced for identifying any use of artificial substances or methods for enhancing athlete’s performance. Some comprehensive sports testing panels test for performance-enhancing drugs including stimulants, which are abused by the athletes.

Doping at games was banned for two very good reasons like use of drug is cheating and health of athletes gets effected by use of drugs. International Olympic Committee is formed for drug testing on athletes while selecting the athletes for the participating in Olympics and list of substances is prepared by the committee, which should not present in the body of the athlete and this list is updated every year.

The main reason of testing or doping is to find good athletes who does not use any chemical or any other substances for enhancing their performance.

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Level of Drugs Should Present In The Athlete’s Body

Athlete drug testing is conducted to ensure that no participant should have an artificially induced advantage of chemical substances. Enormous pressure is faced by the athletes to excel in the competition. Some have very strong desire to win more than one gold medal in the games for that he can go for performance-enhancing drugs or substances. Athletes have random drug testing process but not preplanned timings for drug testing.

Athletes check the levels of drugs through athlete drug testing. Presence of Amphetamine should be less than 500ng/ml for athletes and this helps the athletes for improving their endurances. Presence of Andro should be less than 250ng/ml and it helps in decreasing the body fat and promotes muscle growth. Diuretics help in losing the body weight and this drug is detected within 1hour after use. Ephedrine used for increasing the performance and presence should be less than 1000ng/ml. Mostly urine samples are preferred instead of blood samples for testing most substances, by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) because it easier to collect volumes of urine than collection of blood samples.

Athletes should provide a specimen of approximately 75ml and 27 laboratories around the world conduct the IOC subjected testing for the samples provided. More than 5000 tests are conducted for Olympic testing each year under bona fide conditions and with proper documentation.

Performance-enhancing drugs usage demeans both sport and the athlete who use them. Don’t use any performance-enhancing drugs and participate in the games.

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Types Of Depression

At this time in US billions of people are suffering with depression. Some it cause for deaths and suicides. Now I share some information about depression and major type’s depressions.

  • In Major depression the episodes can be either single happening or recurring. A single occurring episode will vanish after the treatment has taken effect. For a recurring Major depression there will be a phase of Major depression followed by depression. These bouts of depression are followed by perhaps several years of normal depression free life. The attacks can then occur without any warning.
  • Chronic depression is less harsh than either Major depression or Bipolar depression. The symptoms are life long. A person who has Chronic depression can still carry out their lives without any interfering from the symptoms. Some times there is a strong possibility of double depression occurring to the individual. Double depression is a mixture of Chronic depression and Major depression.
  • Bipolar depression is not similar as the other types of depression. The mood swings of this depression are cyclic. That is there are periods of euphoric highs and sad, worthless lows. There are times when the mood changes can be very fast and dramatic. The symptoms of Bipolar depression include being overactive, having lots of unlimited energy, loss of good judgment, feeling invincible amongst others.

But all of the depression types have dissimilar ways of reacting with different individuals so each of these depression symptoms needs to receive the right sort of treatment.

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