Archive for September, 2014

Surgical Treatment for Jaw Disorders

Normally jaw is made up of a set of bones. It consist of two parts, upper portion of the jaw is maxilla and is immovable and lower portion of the jaw is mandible which is involved in the movement of jaw.

Jaw disorder is the condition in which abnormalities in the jaw position takes place. Minor abnormalities in the jaw can be treated by wearing dental braces and some other appliances. If the abnormalities in the jaw cannot be treated with dental braces, then it can be treated by performing surgeries.

Corrective jaw surgery
Corrective jaw surgery is performed to correct the abnormalities in jaw. It is performed to correct the deformities in the upper or lower jaw or both the jaws. It improves the appearance of face and also improves the chewing and talking ability.

Corrective jaw surgery is performed on candidates who are:

 

  • Experiencing difficulty in chewing or talking
  • Deformities in temporomandibular joint
  • Prognathism and malocclusion
  • Breathing through mouth
  • Receding lower jaw and chin

Surgery can be performed on candidates whose jaw bone has fully developed and there is no growth in the jaw. Surgical procedure involves following steps:

  • Pre operative treatment: In this step, orthodontist takes x-rays to examine the jaw and align your teeth using dental braces. These braces should be fitted to your teeth for several weeks before surgery. This will gradually push your teeth to their normal position.
  • Surgical procedure: Surgical procedure starts initially by giving general anesthesia.
  • ¬†Lower jaw surgery: In this surgery an incision is made inside the mouth to expose the joint potion of the jaw connecting to the front portion that supports teeth. Then deformities are corrected and repositioned the lower jaw to their normal position. Small surgical plate and screws are used to hold the jaw in their normal position.
  • Upper jaw surgery: In this surgery, an incision is made inside the mouth to separate the tooth baring portion of the jaw from its base. Corrections are made by removing or reshaping or adding of jaw tissue to relocate in the normal position. Then tiny surgical plate and screws are used to hold the jaw in new position.
  • Post operative treatment: Recovery time is 4-6 weeks. After completion of surgery, retainers are applied to the jaw to prevent the repositioning of jaw. Orthodontist suggest you to take liquids or soft consistency foods for some weeks.

Side effects of surgery

  • Pain and discomfort after surgery
  • Swelling of face but can decrease gradually
  • Stiffness of jaw – It is due to the swelling of jaw but can be reduced with time

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Overheating of a Car Engine and Radiators

The power and torque is produced in an engine through upward and downward piston action and the reciprocating motion of the connected rod and the crankshaft. Whenever continuous movement between machine parts happen, friction comes into picture. Friction due to rubbing of surfaces with each other like piston rubbing against the cylinder and the connecting rod and crankshaft generates heat in the machine components. Certain amount of heat is generated by the ignition of fuel in the cylinder.

Consequences of engine heating
The heat generated depreciates the economy of the fuel as a part of the energy generated by ignition of fuel is getting wasted in the form of heat due to friction and more effort has to be put to overcome the friction. A high engine temperature can reduce the life of the engine due to the fact that heat disorients the grain structure of the material and leads to deformation and wear and tear of the machine. This increases the maintenance cost and decreases the life of the engine.

Reasons for engine overheating
If the engine of your car is facing over heating problem, it can be because of many things. Starting from the basic, it might be possible that the engine oil is not being used or either it is of bad quality. Another major cause for overheating of engines is inadequate coolant levels. So you have to ensure on regular interval of times that there is enough coolant present in the tank. Sometimes, the coolant level decreases in the tank due to leakage. So timely inspection of car should be done to ensure that things are in proper condition. Often the cooling system fails to operate because the thermostat becomes dysfunctional. This can lead to many associated problems like fan failure and non-circulation of coolant. These are few of the major reasons for heating of an automobile engine.

Radiator system for car engine cooling
The heat generated by the engine has to be removed from the engine so that work can be obtained from an engine for long hours. Else the engine will breakdown. Part of this done with the help of engine oil. Engine oil lubricates the sides of the cylinder and ensues that the piston movements over the cylinder surface is smooth and does not generate much heat.

Even then the generated heat is much and cooling systems have to be employed to counter the heat generated. Car cooling system is majorly a heat exchange system which uses a coolant liquid to extract the heat from the engine. Many a times, water is used as coolant. Radiator consist of coolant tubes that circulate water over the engine. The passing water over the engine extracts heats from the water thereby reducing the temperature of the engine. A turbulator is provided to agitate the tubes so that the water is heated uniformly and not just on the tube surface. This increases the efficiency of the system. Due to heating, the coolant expands. Due to excessive heating, the pressure may rise in the tubes which may cause them to blast. To avoid this, protective caps are provided which opens in case high pressure is generated in the tubes.

Often, this process is supplemented by a cooling fan over radiator. Coolant is sprinkled over the radiator and a fan cools the liquid by passing air through it. This helps in further cooling of the coolant. This way the heat generated in the engine is removed. With the help of cooling systems, life of the engine is improved and it can be used for long hours continuously.
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Importance of Language in Translation

Language forms an important part in whatever case it may deal with. If language is not correct then what is said is not what is meant; if what is said is not what is meant, then what must be done remains pending; if this remains undone, Art and morals will degrade; if justice vanishes, people will remain in helpless confusion. Hence there must be no intolerance in what is said which is what matters above everything.

How language forms the important factor in translation?

  • Language translation and interpretation has been described using various terms like internationalization, localization, globalization and translation.
  • With importing and exporting transactions taking place widely interpreters and translators are in to transferring documents, agreements , manuals and conversations from source to target language.
  • If a break down occurs at the level of communication results in commerce breaks off which leads to loss of billions of dollars and opportunities.
  • This shows how important is language in translating and the interpreters who work on these.
  • Depending on the language you are translating, the same language may be translated differently between countries because of the words which convey different meanings based on the location they are used.
  • Mistranslation of the meaning or word becomes offensive and in cases few of the literal translations are not correct always.
  • By keeping the original message and meaning from the source in the translation process becomes more of an art than science.

Translator specializations
Translation deals with the method of converting a meaning of text from one language in to another language. The following are few specializations of translators:

Technical translators: Technical translators will be specialized in technical and scientific field and deals in translating technical and scientific documents. It is required to have some knowledge with respect to the subject field.

Literary translators: Translators of this type translates literature between various languages they deal in translating journal articles, poetry, books and short stories. Along with creative writing this translation needs adequate writing of the content in particular language.

Legal translators: Translators in this specialization translate legal documents like court orders, laws and treaties. They ensure to perform the task by even translating the unclear or doubtful statements.

Localization translators: They deal with converting the entire product in to different language and culture such as internet, software or manufacturing products.

  • They should possess strong language skills, audience which obtains the product and technical terminology.
  • The primary aim of this specialization is to make the product to be appeared similar to that of the produced product by the target selling country.
  • In few situations these translators will be computer sensitive and should have specific software or scientific knowledge skills.

In present days, language translation and interpretation are being used in every sphere of daily life from school or university level to business end. The above article gives information regarding the important of language in translation and the various specializations associated with translators.
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Self-defense Techniques and Tips for Senior Citizens

Seniors are prone to be exposed to criminal and life-threatening situations because of vulnerable position. Women should equip themselves with the skills to protect themselves from physical and mental agony. However, there are self-defense techniques even for the senior citizens and we have listed out few techniques to help them in protecting themselves against these attacks.

Self-defense techniques and tips for senior citizens
Use the things that you have handy: Old people can use whatever things available at the hand as weapons in getting self-protection. For example, you can use your walking stick as a good weapon to harm the attacker. However, make sure that you do not get injured because of using your walking stick to harm the attacker. Do whatever is possible up to your extent.

Carry a personal alarm: A personal alarm is one of the effective tools in making a loud alarm. Once the safety pin is removed from the alarm, it makes a loud sound so that you can get help from others and chances of attacker running away from the place without harming you is more because, he/she will be feared of the people coming towards the sound. Therefore, it is recommended that seniors should use this personal alarm wherever they go.

Use pepper sprays: Pepper spray is also one of the powerful weapons that old people can use to make the attacker unconscious. As most old people cannot fight, it is better to carry this pepper spray along with them and use it at the right time i.e., if you are in danger. It is hand available tool, which you can easily carry it and spray it on the attacker when necessary.

Utilize stun guns: There are many advantages of stun guns and it is an effective tool in self-defense. Using stun guns is somewhat complicated for the new users, but if you know its usage before applying it on the attacker, it will be safer. This is a non-lethal alternative to the other weapons and any one can use it. Using this on the attacker generates high voltage through which it disables him/her and prevents them from attacking. These kinds of tools are good for seniors.

Use your previous experiences if any: The fact is that old people are physically weak. However, some people will have previous experiences on martial arts or have strong fighting skills and these people looks stronger even in their old age. Therefore, such people can use their experiences in harming the attacker.

Hope older citizens get self-defense with this powerful self-defense techniques and tips to protect themselves against the attack.
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Effect of Fluoride in Drinking Water on Humans

Fluoride compounds are salts that naturally form in ground and enters ground water. Many communities add fluoride in traces to promote dental health. Fluorine is beneficial for dental health but excess leads to bone fractures and dental fluorosis.

How does fluoride get into drinking water?
Most water suppliers contain naturally occurring fluoride. Substances such as sodium fluoride and fluorosilicates are easily dissolved in ground and it enters into ground water as it passes through rocks and gaps between rocks and pores. Communities add fluoride to drinking water in adequate amounts to promote dental health.

How fluoride effects body?
Drinking water containing fluoride enters into the stomach. 70-90% of the ingested fluoride is absorbed in stomach. Unabsorbed fluoride enters into intestine where it absorbs remaining. Once it gets absorbed, it enters into systemic circulation and distributed throughout the body. It retains more in calcium rich areas such as bones and teeth. Thereby it shows effect on teeth and bone. Finally unabsorbed fluoride excretes from body through kidneys and impairs kidney functioning.

Effects of fluoride in drinking water
Effects of long term exposure to fluoride shows serious effects on humans. Fluoridation effects teeth, bones and it increases the risk of cancer.

  • Effect on teeth: Communities add adequate amount of fluoride to drinking water to promote dental health. The severity of effect depends on the concentration of fluoride in drinking water. Drinking fluoride containing water causes dental fluorosis in children.
  • Effect on bones: Drinking water that contains elevated levels of fluoride leads to crippling of bones. Exposure to high concentrations of fluoride, leads to osteoporosis in humans. It also affects pregnant women. It reaches womb through placenta and affects baby. The effect of fluoride on bones include:
  • Crippling skeletal fluorosis
  • Osteosclerosis
  • Ligamentous and tendeneous calcification
  • Extreme bone deformity
  • Fluoride increases the risk if intake of fluoride is above 6mg/day
  • Cancer: Excess fluoride absorption leads to cancer. But very less evidences shown than fluoride intake increases the risk of cancer. The cancers associated with fluoridation are lung cancer and bladder cancer.
  • Kidneys: Fluoride excretes from the body through kidneys. It impairs renal functioning. On excess exposure it increases the risk of kidney failure.
  • Brain: Fluoride shows its affects on brain and lowers intelligence quotient.
  • Thyroid: Lowers functioning of thyroid and decreases the release of hormones such as thyroxine. Thereby it causes thyroidism in humans on exposure to fluoride.

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When to Use Weapons During Self-defense?

At times, you may face scary situations, and you have to defend yourself against the attackers. You can use weapons during self-defense, but you should make sure to take into account certain things. There are rules on when to use, where to use and what qualifications are required to use, etc. This article will answer all these queries, so that you will get a clarity regarding the weapon usage in self-defense.

After proper training
Before you use weapons like gun, you should have a good training in handling them carefully and to use it. Without training, it will be difficult for you to handle the weapons and there will be chances of getting hurt due to lack of proper usage. Therefore, we suggest you to get properly trained in using such weapons.

After weapon registration
Some weapons such as guns require registration. Without registration, it’s criminal to use them even for your self-defense or self security. You should register your weapon with the government authority and they will approve the registration only if you are skilled in using the kind of weapon you took for registration. Once your weapon is registered, you can use it only in the emergency situations.

After knowing the rules of the state or country
You can use the weapon only after the registration and once you know the rules of the state or country in using the weapons. These rules will tell you about things you need to do after registration and the how you will be penalized, if you violate those rules. Laws and rules may vary for both men and women as women are more vulnerable. Therefore, be aware of them before you use them for your self-defense.

Use them only when you’re in danger
You should use the weapon only in dangerous situations for self defense or for self protection. Avoid using it when there is strong reason, which may land you in trouble.

When no one is with you
One more suggestion is to use it when you are in an extreme difficulty, and when no one is in the surroundings to help you out.

Therefore, when you are using weapons, bear in mind these facts and advice. This may surely help you out when you need self-defense with your weapons.
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How to Expunge DUI or DWI

Expungement is nothing but a permanent removal of conviction from the records so that it no longer appears on the background history available to employers, lenders and public. Therefore you can get a job and loans easily as you have not charged in any DUI or DWI cases, but it can be seen by law enforcement and court officials. DUI or DWI cases are expunged only by the court order.

If you want to expunge your criminal offense from records, the following should be known:

  • Whether your state allows expungement.
  • Whether the elapsed time between the DUI offense and petition for the expungement of your crime is completed or not. Usually it may be not more than one year.
  • Whether you are eligible for expungement of your convicted crime.

If yes, then determine what are the steps to be followed to expunge your DUI case.

Fill out the required format
If your state allows expungement and you are eligible for expungement, the process stats with filling required application or petition to file with the court. It requires lot of paper work. Courts charge some amount for filing an application. The form filling is confusing so it is better to take help of attorney.

Submit the form to the state court
You should then submit the completed application to the court clerk. Ask them for the next process and how long will it take to expunge your conviction from your record.

Serve the prosecutor office with the copies of application
Then serve the prosecutor with the copies of your application and the crime record. If you are still drunk and driving the vehicle it is waste of your time and money to apply for expungement. Then prosecutor office checks whether it is your first and only offense, then it is worth to apply for expungement.

Attend an expungement hearing
Finally the judge will determine whether to grant expungement or not based on the detailed mentioned on the application your background check list and opinion from the district attorney. If the judge is satisfied with your application and your previous check list, court will issue an order to expunge the DUI from records.

DUI or DWI cases have two sides one is administrative and other is criminal. In most of the cases the offense will be removed from the criminal case but not from administrative it means not removed from driving record.
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OSHA: A Mandatory Law for Businesses

About OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is a Federal government agency that ensures that workplace conditions and environments are safe for the employees. The Act furnished guidelines, measures and safeguards that need to be ensured at workplace to protect the employees from hazardous conditions for health and workplace accidents. OSHA is very particular about the health and safety of the employees and demands strict compliance.

OSHA laws mandate the employer to communicate the laws to their employees by displaying posters at places that are commonly visited by employees. These include like notice board, dining hall, etc.

The law is applicable to private and Federal government bodies. OSHA covers only State and local government bodies if the state has an OSHA approved state program. However, OSHA is not applicable to:

  • People who are self employed.
  • Immediate members of family run farm business.
  • Employees regulated by other federal agencies like MSHA and the US Coastguard.

What the law required you to do
The law has immense provisions for the employers and employees to ensure that the employees are safe from workplace hazards and accidents and the workplace environment is safe. OSHA enforces and sets workplace standards for businesses. OSHA provides for norms for safeguards to protect employees’ health and life. In addition to critical industries like construction, maritime and chemical industries, etc, they cover general business bodies as well in the form of sanitation and air quality standards.

Employers are responsible for ensuring a safe and hazard free working environment. They need to keep the posters at workplace to avoid hazard and adopt some color code systems. They need to train their workforce on the safe practices at the work in a language their employee understands.

He is required to keep accurate records of the injuries and illness at work. You need to examine the workplace regularly to ensure safe conditions. He is required to display safety posters and health and illness data at places where employees can see them. In case any accident happens where an employee loses his life or three or more employees go to hospital, employer has to notify the accident to OSHA within eight hours of the accident.

Compliance with the law
OSHA provides enough provisions for the employees to identify and report any accidents, hazardous workplace condition or practice to OSHA, though it is advised to bring them to the attention of employer first. Employees under this act are empowered to bring any aspect of non-compliance to the notice of OSHA thereby raising the concern for compliance for the employer.

The Federal agencies are stringent regarding the law and OSHA compliance officers are known for carrying out spot checking on the workplace cracking down any non-compliance. It comes accompanied with heavy fines and penalties. The whistle blowers are protected by the Federal agencies under the purview of Whistle Blower Protection Act.

Therefore, compliance with the law in the form of posters and regulations and measures becomes very important for the employer. It is advisable for the employer to keep track for the workplace conditions to ensure maximum protection and safety for the employees and compliance with the law.
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How to Change Brake Pads of Your Car

The brake pads are one of the important components in vehicle’s braking system. These components are responsible for stopping the vehicle when you press the brake paddle brakes. It is very important to understand how to replace the brake pads.
Changing brake pads of your car is very easy option than taking your car/vehicle to the mechanic. which result to an expensive charge. Now let us discuss steps to be followed to replace brake pads of your car.

How to replace brake pads of your car/ vehicle

  • Firstly go through your owners manual to know which type of brake pads to be purchased and which suits your car model.
  • Park your vehicle/car in a safe place and turn off the ignition system.
  • Make sure that the vehicle is cooled down.
  • Before unscrewing the wheel nuts make sure the car/ vehicle brake pads are cooled down and safe to touch them.
  • Bring all the necessary equipments
    • Make sure that all the necessary equipments like screw jack,lug nut wrench and new brake pads are around the wheel for ease access
    • Now lift the car above the ground level by using screw jack
  • Loose the lug nuts which are present on the wheel
    • By using the lug wrench loosen each of the lug nuts that hold the wheels of your car.
    • Don’t loosen all the tires at once only loosen the required replacement brake pads.
    • Normally we will change eitherthe two front pads or the two back pads depending upon the car and the brake pads condition. So select which brake pads to be replacae either start with the front or the back brake pads.
  • Remove the wheels from the wheel cabine
    • After Finish loosening remove the lug nuts.
    • Pull the wheel straight out towards you from the wheel cabine.
    • If the wheel rims are made of alloy and on studs clean the studs, stud holes, rotor mounting surface, and the rear mounting surface of the alloy wheel
    • Now apply anti seize compound before refitting the wheel.
  • Carefully Remove the caliper with a small piece of wire to the wheel
    • After removing the caliper bolts from the wheel cabine.
    • The caliper will still connected to the brake line, so hang it up with a small piece of wire hanger so that it won’t hang and put some amount of pressure on the brake hose.
  • Remove the cap from the brake master cylinder
    • Brake fluid will be contaminated with dirt and other abrasive particle from the air.
    • The brake fluid will also absorb moisture from the air, dangerously lowering its boiling point. You must bleed the brake fluid from the system before changing your pads and calipers.
    • Leave the cap off while you bleed the system.
    • Inspect the sequence of bleeding.
    • Fit a small plastic hose to the bleeder nipple.
  • Double check the brake system for air bubbles
    • With the engine in off condition continually pump the brakes until they experience resistanc.
    • While compressing the brake pedal results in the fluid gurgling in the master cylinder.
    • There are still air bubbles in the system. Start bleeding them again.
  • Remove the old pads
    • Note how each brake pads are attached to the wheel cabine .the brake pads are typically snap with attached metal clips.
    • Remove both pads, They may required a little force to remove so take care not to damage the caliper or brake line while removing them out.
  • Put the new pads on to the brake cabine
    • Put the new pads on to the brake cabine and spread anti-seize lubricant on the metal contact edges till the back of the pads.
    • It prevent squeaking do not get any lubricant onto the inside of the brake pads.
  • Check the brake fluid
    • Re connect the brake fluid reservoir cap when finished.
    • Reconnec the caliper to the wheel cabine again.
  • Put the wheel back to it’s position
    • Put the wheel back to it’s position – slide the wheel back into place and tighten each of the lug nuts before lowering the car.
  • Tighten the lug nuts
    • When the car is back on the ground, tighten the lug nuts.
    • Tighten one lug nuts until each nut is fully tightened to torque specification in the owners manual.
  • Start the vehicle
    • Making sure the vehicle is in neutral and press the brakes for about 15 to 20 times to make sure that the brake pads are seated correctly.

After tightening all the components start your vehicle/car at test your brake pads at different speed intervals.
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How to Construct a Fire Pit in Your Garden?

Do you want to construct a fire pit in your garden? Here are the steps that you can go through for building a simple fire pit without the help of the builder. Fire pits are especially important for winter to make you and your garden warm. Fire pits can be constructed in various shapes and sizes. Read this article for steps to construct your own fire pit in your garden.

fairy housesSteps to construct a fire pit
Choose the location in your garden: To start construction, the first thing you have to do is the selection of the place or location. The best place would ultimately be the garden for the construction. Again in garden you should choose the location for construction the fire pit. It, depends on your choice, some people love poolside or some would like to have this in patio or deck etc. So, based on your interest and choice select the location in your garden.

Gather the tools and materials required for constructing: Once, you are done with the location, collect the required tools and materials for building the fire pit. Tools include stones, cement, trowel, motor etc.

Select the stone options for your fire pit: When you are gathering the tools and materials for your fire pit, the first choice you have to make is choosing the type of stone for your fire pit. The stones that you choose for your fire pit should match the look of the garden. For example, for rock garden use natural stones available in the nature. Some of the stone choices are graveling, raise brick, simple brick etc. You can select the gravel to use inside the fire pit, so that the ground of your garden does not damage with the fire.

Start the Construction: Before, you start construction make sure that all the necessary materials are present. At first, dig the hole with the width, depth, size and the style you want for your fire pit. Start with the foundation using the rock and cement. Make the pit solid with concrete, clay etc. Make this dry for some time and then, fill the edges. For not making the ground of the pit damaged, fill the inside with the layer of the river rock or gravel.

Sit around the fire pit and have a great time: Place chairs around your fire pit and lit the fire and enjoy its warmness. Do not let the fire come out of the pit. For this, you should take the necessary precautions. As it is located in the garden make sure that the plants and grass are wet so that even if the fire comes out it will not spread. Fire pit makes your garden more beautiful. Garden is the best place to enjoy both the nature and the warmness that comes out from the fire pit.

This is how you can construct and enjoy the essence of the fire pit.
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