A geographic information system (GIS) is a systems that captures, stores, analyzes, manages, presents the data related to a geographical location. GIS can be used in areas like archaeology, geography, cartography, remote sensing, land surveying, public utility management, natural resource management, precision agriculture, photogrammetry, urban planning, emergency management and petroleum industry.

Use of GIS in the petroleum industry is growing and it is used as a powerful tool for analyzing and displaying data. GIS can be applied in the various stages in the extraction of the petroleum industry and these are given below:

Petroleum Exploration:
GIS helps the petroleum exploration process by integrating data related to satellite imagery, seismic surveys, digital aerial photo mosaics, surface geology studies, subsurface and cross section interpretations and images, well locations, and existing infrastructure information and images developed by combining the data which can reveal underground geological information. GIS also used to create reconnaissance maps and GIS technology helps the exploration and exploitation teams to share information, analyze data in new ways, and integrate the evaluation process.

GIS technology is used for the analysis of geographic, infrastructure, business conditions, and environmental factors and these are integrated with other business risk or economic business planning engines to provide a focused business solution tool set.

Facilities Management:
An oil company must keep good track of every step in the process from drilling platforms to pipeline networks to get competitive advantage.

Pipeline Management:
Flow of oil in the pipelines and the condition of pipelines can be monitored by GIS programs and company can determine the best pipeline locations to transport oil off the fields and to the refineries.

GIS software, of late has gained increased importance in petroleum industry. This has led to the revolutionizing of traditional practices in petroleum industry.

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