Archive for November, 2008

Bronze Age Europe History

The Bronze Age in Europe succeeds the Neolithic in the late 3rd millennium BC (late Beaker culture), and spans the entire 2nd millennium BC (Unetice culture, Urn field culture, Tumulus culture, Terramare culture, Lusatian culture) in Northern Europe lasting until ca. 600 BC. In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is measured to have been the period from around 2100 to 700 BC. Migration brought new people to the islands from the different continent. Recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicate that at least some of the immigrants came from the area of modern Switzerland. The Beaker people displayed dissimilar behaviors from the earlier Neolithic people and cultural change was important. Integration is thought to have been peaceful as many of the early henge sites were apparently adopted by the newcomers. The rich Wessex  culture developed in southern Britain  at this time. Additionally, the climate was deteriorating, where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, forcing the population away from easily-defended sites in the hills and into the lush valleys. Large livestock ranches developed in the lowlands which appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances.

The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to appear in the second half of the ‘Middle Bronze Age’ (c. 1400-1100 BC) to develop these conditions. Cornwall was a main source of tin for much of Western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales.Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent. Also, the burial of dead became more individual. For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow was used to house the dead, the ‘Early Bronze Age’ saw people buried in individual barrows it also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as Tumuli, or sometimes in cists covered with cairns. The greatest quantities of bronze objects found in England were discovered in East Cambridge  shire, where the most important finds were done in Isleham.


Mechatronics at a Glimpse

Mechatronics was invented by Mr. Tetsuro Mori, a senior engineer of the Japanese company Yaskawa, in 1969. Mechatronics is the mixture of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering and software engineering. The reason of this interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automata from an engineering viewpoint and serves the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems. The word itself is a portmanteau of ‘Mechanics’ and ‘Electronics’. Mechatronics is centered on mechanics, electronics, control engineering, computing, molecular engineering which, shared make possible the generation of simpler, more inexpensive, reliable and versatile systems. Mechatronics may alternatively be referred to as electromechanical systems or less often as control and automation engineering.

Engineering cybernetics deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems. It is used to control or regulate such a system. Through teamwork the mechatronic modules perform the production goals and inherit flexible and agile manufacturing properties in the production scheme. A modern production tool consists of mechatronic modules that are integrated according to control architecture. The most known architectures involve hierarchy, polyarchy, heterarchy and hybrid. The methods for achieving a technical result are described by control algorithms, which may or may not utilize formal methods in their design. Hybrid-systems important to Mechatronics include production systems, synergy drives, planetary exploration rovers, and automotive subsystems such as anti-lock braking systems, spin-assist and everyday equipment such as auto focus cameras, video, hard disks, CD-players, washing machines. A typical mechatronic engineering degree would involve classes in engineering mathematics, mechanics, machine component design, mechanical design, thermodynamics, circuits and systems, electronics and communications, control theory, programming, digital signal processing, power engineering, robotics and usually a final year thesis.

Suggested Reading:
Pros And Cons Between Analogue And Digital Electronics
All about Nanotechnology
Mechanical engineering Education
The Global Industry of Electronics
Airplanes to Use Papers in Manufacturing

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