Electronic industry is one of the big industries in the world, sales of electronic products in the United States grew from some $200 million in 1927 to over $266 billion in 1990, the electronics industry transformed factories, offices, and homes, emerging as a key economic sector that rivaled the chemical, steel, and auto industries in size. It was the business of creating, designing, producing, and selling devices such as radios, televisions, stereos, computers, semiconductors, transistors, and integrated circuits.
The industry traces its origins to the invention of the two-element electron pipe (1904) by John Ambrose Fleming, and the three-element pipe (1906) by Lee De Forest. These inventions led to the growth of technical wireless in the 1920s, which boosted wireless sales to $300 million by the conclusion of the decade. In 1947, the electronics industry made another significant rise when John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invented the transistor. Smaller, lighter, and more lasting than the void tubes that had been used in radios, transistors touched away a period of liberal miniaturization of electronic devices. Integrated circuits, which were developed in the 1950s, allowed the consolidation of several circuits into one tour, and the creation of analogue devices in the 1960s immensely increased the sum of data that could be stored on an unmarried silicon microchip.
Other significant sectors that have made good advances since the 1970s include laser and optical electronics, digital electronics, and microwave electronics. Advances in the area of electronics have too played an important character in the growth of place engineering and satellite communications; inaugurated a revolution in the computer industry that led to the creation of the private computer; resulted in the creation of computer-guided robots in factories; produced systems for storing and transmitting information electronically; greatly expanded the marketplace for favorite music and civilization; and, in the procedure, transformed living at house, the agency, and the mill. Many of these innovations, such as the transistor, had their origins in military investigation, which needed progressively complicated electronic devices for contemporary hi-tech war.
In the 1960s, the U. S. consumer electronics industry went into fall as manufacturers were incapable to vie with the character and pricing of international products, particularly the electronic goods produced by Japanese companies such as Sony and Hitachi. By the 1980s, however, U. S. manufacturers became the reality leaders in semiconductor growth and assembly. In the 1990s semiconductors were vital components of private computers and almost new electronic items (including cellular telephones, televisions, medical equipment, and “intelligent” appliances. While U. S. companies are yet a leading presence in the semiconductor industry, the consumer items themselves are largely made abroad. Worldwide electronic sales were almost $700 billion in 1997.