Archive for February, 2008

Mechanical engineering Education

Materials science or materials engineering is an interdisciplinary area involving the properties of issue and its applications to respective areas of science and technology. This science investigates the relationship between the system of materials and their properties. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry, as easily as chemical, automatic, civilian and electric technology. With substantial media care to nanoscience and nanotechnology in new years, materials science has been propelled to the vanguard at many universities. It is too a significant region of forensic technology and forensic materials engineering, the survey of failed products and components. Bachelor of Science (BS) level in Mechanical Engineering is offered at many universities in the United States, and related programs are offered at universities in most industrialized nations.

In Canada, India, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, South Africa, Taiwan, U.S., and many others, Mechanical Engineering programs usually take 4 to 5 years and result in a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering (BSc)or a Bachelor of Technology (BTech), Bachelor in Engineering (B.E), or a Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.). In Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary and many other central and east European countries (Romania, Serbia, Croatia, etc) the (BSc) and (BTech) are available as an intermediate (or final) 4 years degree, however the 5-6 years “Diplomas”;(Dipl), (Dipl-Ing), (Dipl-Tech); are still the most relevant degrees. Some countries like Malaysia, Singapore, and Nigeria offer a 4 or 5 year Bachelor of Science (BSc) / Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) degree with Honors (Hons) in Mechanical Engineering. In Spain, Portugal and most South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Venezuela, among others) the (BSc) or (BTech) programs have not been adopted, the formal name for the degree is just “Mechanical Engineer” and the course work is based on a 5-6 years training. In Australia and New Zealand, necessities are normally a 4 years Bachelor of Engineering (BE or BEng) degree, equivalent to the British MEng level. A BEng degree varies from a BSc degree in that the students obtain a broader education consisting of information relevant to various engineering disciplines.

The majority undergraduate Mechanical Engineering programs in the U.S. are attributed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) to make sure similar course requirements and standards between universities. The ABET web site lists 276 qualified Mechanical Engineering programs as of June 19, 2006. Mechanical Engineering programs in Canada are accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB).Some Mechanical Engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Management (MEng.Mgt, MEM), a Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering (EngD, PhD) or an Engineer’s degree. The Master’s and Engineer’s degrees may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy consists of an essential research component and is often viewed as the entry point to university.

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Nobel Prize Controversy

The Nobel Peace Prize is a most honorable prize in the world but it has sparked controversy throughout its history. The Norwegian Parliament appoints the Peace Prize Committee, but peace lover’s critics argue that the same Parliament has pursued partisan military aims by ratifying membership in NATO in 1949, by hosting NATO troops, and by leasing ports and territorial waters to US ballistic missile submarines in 1983. However, the Parliament has no say in the award issue. A member of the Committee cannot at the same time be a member of the Parliament, and the Committee includes former members from all major parties, including those parties that oppose NATO membership.

These are the some widely discussed controversy of the peace-prize is the notable omissions, namely the failure to award individuals with widely recognized contributions to peace. The list includes Mahatma Gandhi, Corazon Aquino, Pope John XXIII, Pope John Paul II, Steve Biko, Raphael Lemkin, Herbert Hoover, Cesar Chavez, Jose Figueres Ferrer, and Oscar Romero. In particular, the omission of the Indian leader Gandhi has been widely discussed, including public statements by the various members of Nobel Committee. It has been acknowledged by the committee that Gandhi was nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, a few days before he was murdered in January 1948. The omission has been publicly regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee. In 1948, the year of Gandhi’s death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the ground that “there was no suitable living candidate” that year. Later, when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was “in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.” In most cases, the omissions resulted in part from the provision in Alfred Nobel’s will that only living people could receive the prize.

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The Global Industry of Electronics

Electronic industry is one of the big industries in the world, sales of  electronic products in the United States grew from some $200 million in 1927 to over $266 billion in 1990, the electronics industry transformed factories, offices, and homes, emerging as a key economic sector that rivaled the chemical, steel, and auto industries in size. It was the business of creating, designing, producing, and selling devices such as radios, televisions, stereos, computers, semiconductors, transistors, and integrated circuits.

The industry traces its origins to the invention of the two-element electron pipe (1904) by John Ambrose Fleming, and the three-element pipe (1906) by Lee De Forest. These inventions led to the growth of technical wireless in the 1920s, which boosted wireless sales to $300 million by the conclusion of the decade. In 1947, the electronics industry made another significant rise when John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invented the transistor. Smaller, lighter, and more lasting than the void tubes that had been used in radios, transistors touched away a period of liberal miniaturization of electronic devices. Integrated circuits, which were developed in the 1950s, allowed the consolidation of several circuits into one tour, and the creation of analogue devices in the 1960s immensely increased the sum of data that could be stored on an unmarried silicon microchip.

Other significant sectors that have made good advances since the 1970s include laser and optical electronics, digital electronics, and microwave electronics. Advances in the area of electronics have too played an important character in the growth of place engineering and satellite communications; inaugurated a revolution in the computer industry that led to the creation of the private computer; resulted in the creation of computer-guided robots in factories; produced systems for storing and transmitting information electronically; greatly expanded the marketplace for favorite music and civilization; and, in the procedure, transformed living at house, the agency, and the mill. Many of these innovations, such as the transistor, had their origins in military investigation, which needed progressively complicated electronic devices for contemporary hi-tech war.

In the 1960s, the U. S. consumer electronics industry went into fall as manufacturers were incapable to vie with the character and pricing of international products, particularly the electronic goods produced by Japanese companies such as Sony and Hitachi. By the 1980s, however, U. S. manufacturers became the reality leaders in semiconductor growth and assembly. In the 1990s semiconductors were vital components of private computers and almost new electronic items (including cellular telephones, televisions, medical equipment, and “intelligent” appliances. While U. S. companies are yet a leading presence in the semiconductor industry, the consumer items themselves are largely made abroad. Worldwide electronic sales were almost $700 billion in 1997.

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